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CYTOSOL The fluid in which the
organelles of the cytoplasm are suspended. Also called the ground substance of the cell.


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The cytosol is the site of protein synthesis and the cytoskeleton helps provide intracellular structure and helps with organelle movement in cells.
The fluid portion of a cell's cytoplasm, which lies outside the organelles and other insoluble components of the cytoplasm. Cytosol contains water, free proteins, and a variety of other substances; yet, far from being a complex biochemical broth, it is actually highly organized at the molecular level. Most importantly, it is where a major part of cellular metabolism takes place. The proteins within cytosol play an important role in glycolysis, serve as intracellular receptors, and form part of ribosomes, enabling protein synthesis. Cytosol also contains the cytoskeleton.

The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. Proteins within the cytosol play an important role in signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, and they act as intracellular receptors and ribosomes. In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. In eukaryotes, the cytosol contains the cell organelles. In plants, the amount of cytosol can be reduced due to the large tonoplast (central vacuole) that takes up most of the cell interior volume.
The cytosol is not a "soup" with free-floating particles, but is highly organized on the molecular level. The cytosol also contains the cytoskeleton. This is made of fibrous proteins (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) and (in many organisms) maintains the shape of the cell, anchors organelles, and controls internal movement of structures, e.g., transport vesicles.
As the concentration of soluble molecules increases within the cytosol, an osmotic gradient builds up toward the outside of the cell. Water flows into the cell, making the cell larger. To prevent the cell from bursting apart, molecular pumps in the plasma membrane, the cytoskeleton, the tonoplast or the cell wall (if present), are used to counteract the osmotic pressure.
The cytosol is 20% to 30% protein.
Normal human cytosolic pH is (roughly) 7.0 (i.e. neutral), whereas the pH of the extracellular fluid is 7.4.

The cytosol is the substance within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transducion pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors

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Cytosol: The cytosol is the "soup" within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors. Cytoplasm is a collective term for the cytosol plus the organelles suspended within the cytosol.



the cytosol is the substance within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transducion pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors

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The cytosol or intracellular fluid (or cytoplasmic matrix) is the liquid found inside cells. In eukaryotes this liquid is separated by cell membranes from the contents of the organelles suspended in the cytosol, such as the mitochondrial matrix inside the mitochondrion. The entire contents of a eukaryotic cell, minus the contents of the cell nucleus, are referred to as the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or in the periplasmic space. In eukaryotes, while many metabolic pathways still occur in the cytosol, others are contained within organelles.
The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. The concentrations of ions such as sodium and potassium are different in the cytosol than in the extracellular fluid; these differences in ion levels are important in processes such as osmoregulation and cell signaling. The cytosol also contains large amounts of macromolecules, which can alter how molecules behave, through macromolecular crowding.
Although once thought to be a simple solution of molecules, multiple levels of organization exist in the cytosol. These include concentration gradients of small molecules such as calcium, large complexes of enzymes that act together to carry out metabolic pathways, and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol.

The cytosol is the "soup" within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs.
Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors.
Cytoplasm is a collective term for the cytosol plus the organelles suspended within the cytosol.

external image cytoskeleton.gif&usg=AFQjCNF_dYsdr4oqp08arRBqtWBB7B128g Cytosol is the fluid component of cytoplasm, containing the insoluble, suspended cytoplasmic components. In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol.
In eukaryotes, the cytosol surrounds the organelles.

The fluid portion of a cell's cytoplasm, which lies outside the organelles and other insoluble components of the cytoplasm. Cytosol contains water, free proteins, and a variety of other substances; yet, far from being a complex biochemical broth, it is actually highly organized at the molecular level. Most importantly, it is where a major part of cellular metabolism takes place. The proteins within cytosol play an important role in glycolysis, serve as intracellular receptors, and form part of ribosomes, enabling protein synthesis. Cytosol also contains the cytoskeleton.

In prokaryotes, all chemical reactions take place in the cytosol. In eukaryotes, the cytosol forms the surrounding environment of organelles. In plants, the amount of cytosol can be reduced due to the large tonoplast (central vacuole) that takes up most of the cell interior volume.
The cytosol or intracellular fluid (or cytoplasmic matrix) is the liquid found inside cells. In eukaryotes this liquid is separated by cell membranes from the contents of the organelles suspended in the cytosol, such as the mitochondrial matrix inside the mitochondrion. The entire contents of a eukaryotic cell, minus the contents of the cell nucleus, are referred to as the cytoplasm. In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or in the periplasmic space. In eukaryotes, while many metabolic pathways still occur in the cytosol, others are contained within organelles.
The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water. Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. The concentrations of ions such as sodium and potassium are different in the cytosol than in the extracellular fluid; these differences in ion levels are important in processes such as osmoregulation and cell signaling. The cytosol also contains large amounts of macromolecules, which can alter how molecules behave, through macromolecular crowding.
Although once thought to be a simple solution of molecules, multiple levels of organization exist in the cytosol. These include concentration gradients of small molecules such as calcium, large complexes of enzymes that act together to carry out metabolic pathways, and protein complexes such as proteasomes and carboxysomes that enclose and separate parts of the cytosol.





external image art0063.jpgexternal image plntcell.jpgCytosol