The main function of these microbodies is digestion. Lysosomes break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred out into the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials.

Lysosome
Lysosome

Like other microbodies, lysosomes are spherical organelles contained by a single layer membrane. This membrane protects the rest of the cell from the lysosomes’ harsh digestive enzymes that would otherwise damage it.
Lysosomes originate in the Golgi apparatus, but the digestive enzymes are manufactured in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Lysosomes are found in all eukaryotic cells, but are most numerous in disease-fighting cells, such as white blood cells.
Some human diseases are caused by lysosome enzyme disorders. Tay-sachs disease is caused by a genetic defect that prevents the formation of an essential enzyme that breaks down a complex lipid called ganglioside. An accumulation of this lipid damages the nervous system, causes mental retardation and death in early childhood. Arthritis inflammation and pain are related to the escape of lysosome enzymes.




.:Lysosome:.

**Lysosomes** - The main function of these microbodies is digestion. Lysosomes break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials.



Break it down!


Lysosomes (common in animal cells but rare in plant cells) contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion. In white blood cells that eat bacteria, lysosome contents are carefully released into the vacuole around the bacteria and serve to kill and digest those bacteria. Uncontrolled release of lysosome contents into the cytoplasm is also a component of necrotic cell death.
Anatomy of the Lysosome
Anatomy of the Lysosome

The main function of these microscopic organelles is to serve as digestion compartments for cellular materials that have exceeded their lifetime or are otherwise no longer useful. In this regard, the lysosomes recycle the cell's organic material in a process known as autophagy. Lysosomes break down cellular waste products, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and other macromolecules into simple compounds, which are then transferred back into the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials. To accomplish the tasks associated with digestion, the lysosomes utilize about 40 different types of hydrolytic enzymes, all of which are manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum and modified in the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes are often budded from the membrane of the Golgi apparatus, but in some cases they develop gradually from late endosomes, which are vesicles that carry materials brought into the cell by a process known as endocytosis.


external image lysosome.gifexternal image flagellum.jpg


Lysosomes are common in animal cells. They contain hydrolutic enzymes, necessary for intracellular digestion. In white blood cells that eat bacteria, lysosome contents are carefully released into the vacuole around the bacteria and serve to kill and digest those bacteria. Uncontrolled release of lysosome contents in the cytoplasm can also lead to cell death.

Simple Structure of a lysosome
Simple Structure of a lysosome
You will find organelles called lysosomes in nearly every animal-like eukaryotic cell. Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies. What creates a lysosome? You'll have to visit the Golgi complex for that answer.

A lysosome is basically a specialized vesicle that holds a variety of enzymes. The enzyme proteins are first created in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Those proteins are packaged in a vesicle and sent to the Golgi apparatus. The Golgi then does its final work to create the digestive enzymes and pinches off a small, very specific vesicle. That vesicle is a lysosome. From there the lysosomes float in the cytoplasm until they are needed. Lysosomes are single-membrane organelles.

external image 350px-Illu_cell_structure.jpg

Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases). They digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. The membrane surrounding a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at the 4.5 pH they require. Lysosomes fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles, digesting their contents. They are created by the addition of hydrolytic enzymes to early endosomes from the Golgi apparatus. The name lysosome derives from the Greek words lysis, which means dissolution or destruction, and soma, which means body. They are frequently nicknamed "suicide-bags" or "suicide-sacs" by cell biologists due to their role in autolysis. Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in 1949.
The size of lysosomes varies from 0.1–1.2 μm.[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysosome#cite_note-0|]]] At pH 4.8, the interior of the lysosomes is more acidic than the cytosol (pH 7.2). The lysosome's single membrane stabilizes the low pH by pumping in protons (H+) from the cytosol via proton pumps and chloride ion channels. The membrane also protects the cytosol, and therefore the rest of the cell, from the degradative enzymes within the lysosome. For this reason, should a lysosome's acid hydrolases leak into the cytosol, their potential to damage the cell will be reduced, because they will not be at their optimum pH.


Lysosome:
A membrane-bounded organelle, found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, which contains digestive enzymes. It acts as the "garbage disposal" of the cell by breaking down cell components that are no longer needed as well as molecules or even bacteria that are ingested by the cell. The interior of a lysosome is strongly acidic, and its enzymes are active at an acid pH. Lysosomes are found in all eukaryotic cells, but are most numerous in disease-fighting cells, such as leukocytes(white blood cells). Some human diseases are caused by lysosome enzyme disorders. Tay-sachs disease, for example, is caused by a genetic defect that prevents the formation of an essential enzyme that breaks down ganglioside lipids. An accumulation of undigested ganglioside damages the nervous system, causing mental retardation and death in early childhood.

Function and Structure of a lysosome:
Lysosomes break down cellular waste products, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and other macromolecules into simple compounds, which are then returned to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials. To accomplish the tasks associated with digestion, the lysosomes use some 40 different types of hydrolytic enzymes, all of which are manufactured in the endoplasmic reticulum and modified in the Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes are often budded from the membrane of the Golgi apparatus, but in some cases they develop gradually from late endosomes, which are vesicles that carry materials brought into the cell by a process known as endocytosis. Like other microbodies, lysosomes are spherical organelles contained by a single layer membrane, though their size and shape varies to some extent. This membrane protects the rest of the cell from the digestive enzymes contained in the lysosomes, which would otherwise cause significant damage. The cell is further safeguarded from exposure to the biochemical catalysts present in lysosomes by their dependency on an acidic environment. With an average pH of about 4.8, the lysosomal matrix is favorable for enzymatic activity, but the neutral environment of the cytosol renders most of the digestive enzymes inoperative, so even if a lysosome is ruptured, the cell as a whole may remain uninjured. The acidity of the lysosome is maintained with the help of hydrogen ion pumps, and the organelle avoids self-digestion by glucosylation of inner membrane proteins to prevent their degradation.


external image 8038-004-A29C9C02.jpgexternal image lysosome.jpg


(Simpiler explanation)

Structure - membrane bound bag containing hydrolytic enzymes
- hydrolytic enzyme = (water split biological catalyst)
i.e. using water to split chemical bonds
Function - break large molecules into small molecules by
inserting a molecule of water into the chemical bond
external image 350px-Illu_cell_structure.jpg Various organelles labeled. The lysosome is labeled in the upper left. Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. Organelles:
(1) nucleolus
(2) nucleus
(3) ribosomes (little dots)
(4) vesicle
(5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
(6) Golgi apparatus
(7) Cytoskeleton
(8) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(9) mitochondria
(10) vacuole
(11) cytoplasm
(12) lysosome
(13) centrioles within centrosome
Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases). They digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. The membrane surrounding a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at the 4.5 pH they require. Lysosomes fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles, digesting their contents. They are created by the addition of hydrolytic enzymes to early endosomes from the Golgi apparatus. The name lysosome derives from the Greek words lysis, which means dissolution or destruction, and soma, which means body. They are frequently nicknamed "suicide-bags" or "suicide-sacs" by cell biologists due to their role in autolysis. Lysosomes were discovered by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in 1949.
The size of lysosomes varies from 0.1–1.2 μm.[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysosome#cite_note-0|]]] At pH 4.8, the interior of the lysosomes is more acidic than the cytosol (pH 7.2). The lysosome's single membrane stabilizes the low pH by pumping in protons (H+) from the cytosol via proton pumps and chloride ion channels. The membrane also protects the cytosol, and therefore the rest of the cell, from the degradative enzymes within the lysosome. For this reason, should a lysosome's acid hydrolases leak into the cytosol, their potential to damage the cell will be reduced, because they will not be at their optimum pH.external image lysosome.png
Simple Structure of a lysosome
Simple Structure of a lysosome
You will find organelles called lysosomes in nearly every animal-like eukaryotic cell. Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies.