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Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondria also play crucial roles in many other aspects of plant development and performance, and possess an array of unique properties which allow them to interact with the specialized features of plant cell metabolism. The two main themes running through the book are the interconnection between gene regulation and protein function, and the integration of mitochondria with other components of plant cells.

http://giantshoulders.files.wordpress.com/2007/10/mitochondria.jpg
Mitochondria (along with chloroplasts and other plastids) are thought to have originally been independent entities. As such, they had their own DNA, the remains of which can be found in the mitochondria in our cells. It is thought that originally a mitochondria was endocytosed but never fully digested by a early pre-eucaryote. Over time, mitochondria have come to develop a symbiotic relationship with eucaryotic cells, to the point where all but a handful of the mitochondiral genome is now present in the host genome.
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mitochondria
mitochondria

http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/mitochon.htm








Mitochondria provide the energy a cell needs to move, divide, produce secretory products, contract - in short, they are the power centers of the cell. They are about the size of bacteria but may have different shapes depending on the cell type.
Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles, and like the nucleus have a double membrane. The outer membrane is fairly smooth. But the inner membrane is highly convoluted, forming folds called cristae. The cristae greatly increase the inner membrane's surface area. It is on these cristae that food (sugar) is combined with oxygen to produce ATP - the primary energy source for the cell.
(
cell and molecular biology//) Minute cytoplasmic organelles in the form of spherical granules, short rods, or long filaments found in almost all living cells; submicroscopic structure consists of an external membrane system.


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Mitochondria are the cells' power sources. They are distinct organelles with two membranes. Usually they are rod-shaped, however they can be round. The outer membrane limits the organelle. The inner membrane is thrown into folds or shelves that project inward. These are called "cristae mitochondriales". this electron micrograph, shows the organization of the two membranes.



Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell. The process of creating cell energy is known as cellular respiration. Most of the chemical reactions involved in cellular respiration happen in the mitochondria. A mitochondrion is shaped perfectly to maximize its efforts.

Mitochondria are very small organelles. You might find cells with several thousand mitochondria. The number depends on what the cell needs to do. If the purpose of the cell is to transmit nerve impulses, there will be fewer mitochondria than in a muscle cell that needs loads of energy. If the cell feels it is not getting enough energy to survive, more mitochondria can be created. Sometimes they can even grow, move, and combine with other mitochondria, depending on the cell's needs.

MITOCONDRIA STRUCTURE

Mitochondria have two membranes (not one as in other organelles). The outer membrane covers the organelle and contains it. The inner membrane folds over many times (cristae). That folding increases the surface area inside the organelle. Many of the chemical reactions happen on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The increased surface area allows the small organelle to do as much work as possible. If you have more room to work, you can get more work done. Similar surface area strategies are used by microvilli in your intestinal cells. The fluid inside of the mitochondria is called the matrix.
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Mitochondria are membrane enclosed organelles found in most eukaryotic cells. They generate most of the cell's supply of ATP which is used as a source of energy. Mitochondria have their own independent genome, the material of which is known as [[http://www.mitochondrial.net/showcitationlist.php?keyword=mitochondrial DNA|mitochondrial DNA]] (mtDNA). Mitochondria contain inner and outer membranes, forming 5 distinct compartments: outermembrane, [[http://www.mitochondrial.net/showcitationlist.php?keyword=intermembrane space|intermembrane space]], [[http://www.mitochondrial.net/showcitationlist.php?keyword=inner membrane|inner membrane]], cristae space (formed by invaginations of the inner membrane), and the matrix (space within the inner membrane). Much of the activity of the mitochondria occurs within the [[http://www.mitochondrial.net/showcitationlist.php?keyword=inner mitochondrial membrane|inner mitochondrial membrane]] (IMM).



Mitochondria Structure

Mitochondria simple structure
Mitochondria simple structure
Mitochondria have two membranes (not one as in other organelles). The outer membrane covers the organelle and contains it. The inner membrane folds over many times (cristae). That folding increases the surface area inside the organelle. Many of the chemical reactions happen on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The increased surface area allows the small organelle to do as much work as possible. If you have more room to work, you can get more work done. Similar surface area strategies are used by microvilli in your intestinal cells. The fluid inside of the mitochondria is called the matrix.




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Mitochondria:
Mitochondria are present in virtually every cell of the body. They contain the enzymes required for the citric-acid cycle , ATP synthesis, and the oxidation of fatty acids.
Mitochondria (from the Greek "threadlike grain") have a double membrane. The mitochondria are specialized, oval-shaped cellular compartments. The outer membrane is smooth, while the inner membrane called cristae contains numerous foldings. Attached to the cristae are small granules of unknown composition and function. The mitochondria are responsible for the aerobic (oxygen dependent) metabolism of the cell. The enzymes necessary for the citric acid cycle, respiratory chain, and beta fatty acid oxidation, are all compartmentalized in the cristae. There is also some DNA present in the mitochondria which is probably responsible for the synthesis of messenger RNA necessary to produce protein enzymes.
Mitochondria

In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.[1[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-mitosomes-0|]]] These organelles range from 1–10 micrometers (μm) in size. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.[2[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-1|]]] Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mental disorders[3[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-2|]]] and cardiac dysfunction,[4[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-3|]]] and may play a role in the aging process. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος or mitos, thread + χονδρίον or khondrion, granule. Their ancestry is not fully understood, but, according to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria are descended from ancient bacteria, which were engulfed by the ancestors of eukaryotic cells more than a billion years ago.
Several characteristics make mitochondria unique. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. Many cells have only a single mitochondrion, whereas others can contain several thousand mitochondria.[5[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-Alberts-4|]]][6[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-Voet-5|]]] The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Mitochondrial proteins vary depending on the tissues and species. In human, 615 distinct types of proteins were identified from cardiac mitochondria;[7[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-6|]]] whereas in murine, 940 proteins encoded by distinct genes were reported.[8[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-7|]]] The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated.[9[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-8|]]] Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome. Further, its DNA shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.[10[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-9|]]]
A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins.[5[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-Alberts-4|]]] The two membranes, however, have different properties. Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct compartments within the mitochondrion. There is the outer mitochondrial membrane, the intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes), the inner mitochondrial membrane, the cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and the matrix (space within the inner membrane).
The most prominent roles of the mitochondrion are its production of ATP and regulation of cellular metabolism.[6[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrion#cite_note-Voet-5|]]] The central set of reactions involved in ATP production are collectively known as the citric acid cycle, or the Krebs Cycle. However, the mitochondrion has many other functions in addition to the production of ATP.
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Mitochondria
Mitochondria

Mitochondria
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- Second largest organelle with unique genetic structure
- Double-layered outer membrane with inner folds called cristae
- Energy-producing chemical reactions take place on cristae
- Controls level of water and other materials in cell
- Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrates, and forms urea


Mitochondria Structural Features
Mitochondria Structural Features



Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles that can be considered the power generators of the cell, converting oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the chemical energy "currency" of the cell that powers the cell's metabolic activities. This process is called aerobic respiration and is the reason animals breathe oxygen. Without mitochondria (singular, mitochondrion), higher animals would likely not exist because their cells would only be able to obtain energy from anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen), a process much less efficient than aerobic respiration. In fact, mitochondria enable cells to produce 15 times more ATP than they could otherwise, and complex animals, like humans, need large amounts of energy in order to survive.

Mitochondria

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http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/biology/mitochondria.html
Mitochondria are the energy factories of the cells. The energy currency for the work that animals must do is the energy-rich molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The ATP is produced in the mitochondria using energy stored in food. Just as the chloroplasts in plants act as sugar factories for the supply of ordered molecules to the plant, the mitochondria in animals and plants act to produce the ordered ATP molecules as the energy supply for the processes of life.




    • Mitochondria structure

Mitochondria are the energy factories of the cells. The energy currency for the work that animals must do is the energy-rich molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The ATP is produced in the mitochondria using energy stored in food. Just as the chloroplasts in plants act as sugar factories for the supply of ordered molecules to the plant, the mitochondria in animals and plants act to produce the ordered ATP molecules as the energy supply for the processes of life.

A typical animal cell will have on the order of 1000 to 2000 mitochondria. So the cell will have a lot of structures that are capable of producing a high amount of available energy. This ATP production by the mitochondria is done by the process of respiration, which in essence is the use of oxygen in a process which generates energy. This is a very efficient process for using food energy to make ATP. One of the benefits of "aerobic exercise" is that it improves your body's ability to make ATP rapidly using the respiration process.
All living cells have mitochondria. Hair cells and outer skin cells are dead cells and no longer actively producing ATP, but all cells have the same structure. Some cells have more mitochondria than others. Your fat cells have many mitochondria because they store a lot of energy. Muscle cells have many mitochondria, which allows them to respond quickly to the need for doing work. Mitochondria occupy 15 to 20 percent of mammalian liver cells according to Karp.


Mitochondria function

Question: What does the Mitochondria Do?

Answer: Provide energy to cells. Also known as the powerhouse of the cell, the mitochondria provide the location for the production of ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate). ATP is produced by glycolosis, the Krebs cycle and electron transport. ATP in turn provides energy for the cell at the molecular level. they break down food and release energy.**